3D models are a useful tool in studying ancient landscapes, architecture and objects. Popularly used in outreach projects, to breathe life back into ancient ruins or present museum objects to an online public, digital reconstructions can also help with a wide range of research objectives, from spatial to visual and iconographical analysis.

Photogrammetry is the technology of creating 3D models of objects or scenes based on 2D photographs. It can be a quick and easy way for archaeologists to record data and perform analysis off-site. Also, it can be used to gain a better understanding of museum objects and tomb iconography.

Virtual Tours


Photogrammetry workshop
A tutorial I gave in 2019 at the International Congress for Young Egyptologists in Leiden using Agisoft Metashape Standard.

Object photogrammetry for archaeology
Skills course organised by Archon / 4D research Lab.

3D landscape visualisation in Blender
Skills course organised by Archon / 4D research Lab.

3D Modeling Software

Blender – Free software.
Unreal Engine – Popular game engine, used for staging, architecture and lighting.
SketchUp – 3D design software.

Photogrammetry Software

Agisoft Metashape – Often used by archaeologists.
Autodesk ReCap Pro – High end, most expensive.
Meshroom – Free software.
3DF Zephyr – User-friendly workflow.